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The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250

The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250
Author: Karla Mallette
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812204794
Pages: 224
Year: 2011-06-06
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When Muslim invaders conquered Sicily in the ninth century, they took control of a weakened Greek state in cultural decadence. When, two centuries later, the Normans seized control of the island, they found a Muslim state just entering its cultural prime. Rather than replace the practices and idioms of the vanquished people with their own, the Normans in Sicily adopted and adapted the Greco-Arabic culture that had developed on the island. Yet less than a hundred years later, the cultural and linguistic mix had been reduced, a Romance tradition had come to dominate, and Sicilian poets composed the first body of love lyrics in an Italianate vernacular. Karla Mallette has written the first literary history of the Kingdom of Sicily in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Where other scholars have separated out the island's literature along linguistic grounds, Mallette surveys the literary production in Arabic, Latin, Greek, and Romance dialects, in addition to the architectural remains, numismatic inscriptions, and diplomatic records, to argue for a multilingual, multicultural, and coherent literary tradition. Drawing on postcolonial theory to consider institutional and intellectual power, the exchange of knowledge across cultural boundaries, and the containment and celebration of the other that accompanies cultural transition, the book includes an extensive selection of poems and documents translated from the Arabic, Latin, Old French, and Italian. The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250 opens up new venues for understanding the complexity of a place and culture at the crossroads of East and West, Islam and Christianity, tradition and innovation.

The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250

The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250
Author: Karla Mallette
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN:
Pages: 214
Year: 2005-08-25
View: 446
Read: 858

When Muslim invaders conquered Sicily in the ninth century, they took control of a weakened Greek state in cultural decadence. When, two centuries later, the Normans seized control of the island, they found a Muslim state just entering its cultural prime. Rather than replace the practices and idioms of the vanquished people with their own, the Normans in Sicily adopted and adapted the Greco-Arabic culture that had developed on the island. Yet less than a hundred years later, the cultural and linguistic mix had been reduced, a Romance tradition had come to dominate, and Sicilian poets composed the first body of love lyrics in an Italianate vernacular. Karla Mallette has written the first literary history of the Kingdom of Sicily in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Where other scholars have separated out the island's literature along linguistic grounds, Mallette surveys the literary production in Arabic, Latin, Greek, and Romance dialects, in addition to the architectural remains, numismatic inscriptions, and diplomatic records, to argue for a multilingual, multicultural, and coherent literary tradition. Drawing on postcolonial theory to consider institutional and intellectual power, the exchange of knowledge across cultural boundaries, and the containment and celebration of the other that accompanies cultural transition, the book includes an extensive selection of poems and documents translated from the Arabic, Latin, Old French, and Italian. The Kingdom of Sicily, 1100-1250 opens up new venues for understanding the complexity of a place and culture at the crossroads of East and West, Islam and Christianity, tradition and innovation.

The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily

The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily
Author: Hiroshi Takayama
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004098658
Pages: 281
Year: 1993-01-01
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The administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily has long been held up to be the most advanced government in twelfth-century Europe. However, until now there has been considerable confusion about how this bureaucracy actually functioned, whether it developed in the twelfth century or retained the form given it by Roger II; whether it had regional variations, what the identity of different departments of government was, who did what within the structures of government, and what the relationship between the Greek, Arabic and Latin elements within the administration was. This work goes a long way to sorting out these problems. The author's meticulous work with chronicles and charters enables him to clear up many problems and mysteries in the administration of finance and justice and to identify such uncertainties as remain. This fundamental work forms a basic reference point for future studies of Norman Sicily and of government in the high Middle Ages.

Frederick II

Frederick II
Author: David Abulafia
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195080408
Pages: 466
Year: 1988
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Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily, King of Jerusalem, has, since his death in 1250, enjoyed a reputation as one of the most remarkable monarchs in the history of Europe. His wide cultural tastes, his apparent tolerance of Jews and Muslims, his defiance of the papacy, and his supposed aim of creating a new, secular world order make him a figure especially attractive to contemporary historians. But as David Abulafia shows in this powerfully written biography, Frederick was much less tolerant and far-sighted in his cultural, religious, and political ambitions than is generally thought. Here, Frederick is revealed as the thorough traditionalist he really was: a man who espoused the same principles of government as his twelfth-century predecessors, an ardent leader of the Crusades, and a king as willing to make a deal with Rome as any other ruler in medieval Europe. Frederick's realm was vast. Besides ruling the region of Europe that encompasses modern Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, eastern France, and northern Italy, he also inherited the Kingdom of Sicily and parts of the Mediterranean that include what are now Israel, Lebanon, Malta, and Cyprus. In addition, his Teutonic knights conquered the present-day Baltic States, and he even won influence along the coasts of Tunisia. Abulafia is the first to place Frederick in the wider historical context his enormous empire demands. Frederick's reign, Abulafia clearly shows, marked the climax of the power struggle between the medieval popes and the Holy Roman Emperors, and the book stresses Frederick's steadfast dedication to the task of preserving both dynasty and empire. Through the course of this rich, groundbreaking narrative, Frederick emerges as less of the innovator than he is usually portrayed. Rather than instituting a centralized autocracy, he was content to guarantee the continued existence of the customary style of government in each area he ruled: in Sicily he appeared a mighty despot, but in Germany he placed his trust in regional princes, and never dreamed of usurping their power. Abulafia shows that this pragmatism helped bring about the eventual transformation of medieval Europe into modern nation-states. The book also sheds new light on the aims of Frederick in Italy and the Near East, and concentrates as well on the last fifteen years of the Emperor's life, a period until now little understood. In addition, Abulfia has mined the papal registers in the Secret Archive of the Vatican to provide a new interpretation of Frederick's relations with the papacy. And his attention to Frederick's register of documents from 1239-40--a collection hitherto neglected--has yielded new insights into the cultural life of the German court. In the end, a fresh and fascinating picture develops of the most enigmatic of German rulers, a man whose accomplishments have been grossly distorted over the centuries.

European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean

European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean
Author: Karla Mallette
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 081220526X
Pages: 328
Year: 2011-06-06
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Over the past decade, scholars have vigorously reconsidered the history of Orientalism, and though Edward Said's hugely influential work remains a touchstone of the discussion, Karla Mallette notes, it can no longer be taken as the final word on Western perceptions of the Islamic East. The French and British Orientalisms that Said studied in particular were shaped by the French and British colonial projects in Muslim regions; nations that did not have such investments in the Middle East generated significantly different perceptions of Islamic and Arabic culture. European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean examines Orientalist philological scholarship of southern Europe produced between the mid-nineteenth and mid-twentieth century. In Italy, Spain, and Malta, Mallette argues, a regional history of Arab occupation during the Middle Ages gave scholars a focus different from that of their northern European colleagues; in studying the Arab world, they were not so much looking on a distant and radically different history as seeking to reconstruct the past of their own nations. She demonstrates that in specific instances, Orientalists wrote their nations' Arab history as the origin of modern national identity, depicting Islamic thought not as exterior to European modernity but rather as formative of and central to it. Joining comparative insights to the analytic strategies and historical genius of philology, Mallette ranges from the complex manuscript history of the Thousand and One Nights to the invention of the Maltese language and Spanish scholarship on Dante and Islam. Throughout, she reveals the profound influences Arab and Islamic traditions have had on the development of modern European culture. European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean is an engaging study that sheds new light on the history of Orientalism, the future of philology, and the postcolonial Middle Ages.

The Cultures of His Kingdom

The Cultures of His Kingdom
Author: William Tronzo
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691025800
Pages: 170
Year: 1997
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A study of the well known medieval royal chapel, constructed by Roger II, king of Sicily in the mid-twelfth century.

Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily

Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily
Author: Alex Metcalfe
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0700716858
Pages: 286
Year: 2003
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The social and linguistic history of medieval Sicily is both intriguing and complex. Before the Muslim invasion of 827, the islanders spoke dialects of either Greek or Latin or both. On the arrival of the Normans around 1060 Arabic was the dominant language, but by 1250 Sicily was an almost exclusively Christian island, with Romance dialects in evidence everywhere. Of particular importance to the development of Sicily was the formative period of Norman rule (1061 1194), when most of the key transitions from an Arabic-speaking Muslim island to a 'Latin'-speaking Christian one were made. This work sets out the evidence for those changes and provides an authoritative approach that re-defines the conventional thinking on the subject.

Journey into Europe

Journey into Europe
Author: Akbar Ahmed
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815727593
Pages: 592
Year: 2018-02-27
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An unprecedented, richly, detailed, and clear-eyed exploration of Islam in European history and civilization Tensions over Islam were escalating in Europe even before 9/11. Since then, repeated episodes of terrorism together with the refugee crisis have dramatically increased the divide between the majority population and Muslim communities, pushing the debate well beyond concerns over language and female dress. Meanwhile, the parallel rise of right-wing, nationalist political parties throughout the continent, often espousing anti-Muslim rhetoric, has shaken the foundation of the European Union to its very core. Many Europeans see Islam as an alien, even barbaric force that threatens to overwhelm them and their societies. Muslims, by contrast, struggle to find a place in Europe in the face of increasing intolerance. In tandem, anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination cause many on the continent to feel unwelcome in their European homes. Akbar Ahmed, an internationally renowned Islamic scholar, traveled across Europe over the course of four years with his team of researchers and interviewed Muslims and non-Muslims from all walks of life to investigate questions of Islam, immigration, and identity. They spoke with some of Europe’s most prominent figures, including presidents and prime ministers, archbishops, chief rabbis, grand muftis, heads of right-wing parties, and everyday Europeans from a variety of backgrounds. Their findings reveal a story of the place of Islam in European history and civilization that is more interwoven and complex than the reader might imagine, while exposing both the misunderstandings and the opportunities for Europe and its Muslim communities to improve their relationship. Along with an analysis of what has gone wrong and why, this urgent study, the fourth in a quartet examining relations between the West and the Muslim world, features recommendations for promoting integration and pluralism in the twenty-first century.

Sicily and the Mediterranean

Sicily and the Mediterranean
Author: Claudia Karagoz, Giovanna Summerfield
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137486937
Pages: 228
Year: 2015-08-12
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The island of Sicily has for centuries been a meeting point where civilizations transformed one another and gave life to the cultural developments at the foundation of European modernity. The essays collected here explore Sicily as a place where these cultural interactions have produced conflict but also new material and intellectual exchange.

Norman Kings of Sicily and the Rise of the Anti-Islamic Critique

Norman Kings of Sicily and the Rise of the Anti-Islamic Critique
Author: Joshua C. Birk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319470426
Pages: 371
Year: 2017-01-11
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This book is an investigative study of Christian and Islamic relations in the kingdom of Sicily during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It has three objectives. First, it establishes how and why the Norman rulers of Sicily, all of whom were Christians, incorporated Muslim soldiers, farmers, scholars, and bureaucrats into the formation of their own royal identities and came to depend on their Muslim subjects to project and enforce their political power. Second, it examines how the Islamic influence within the Sicilian court drew little scrutiny, and even less criticism, from intellectuals in the wider world of Latin Christendom during the time period. Finally, it contextualizes and explains the eventual emergence of Christian popular violence against Muslims in Sicily in the latter half of the twelfth century and the evolution of a wider discourse of anti-Islamic sentiment throughout Western Europe.

Knowledge in Translation

Knowledge in Translation
Author: Patrick Manning, Abigail Owen
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 0822986272
Pages: 455
Year: 2018-09-18
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In the second millennium CE, long before English became the language of science in the twentieth century, the act of translation was crucial for understanding and disseminating knowledge and information across linguistic and geographic boundaries. This volume considers the complexities of knowledge exchange through the practice of translation over the course of a millennium, across fields of knowledge—cartography, health and medicine, material construction, astronomy—and a wide geographical range, from Eurasia to Africa and the Americas. Contributors literate in Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Minnan, Ottoman, and Persian explore the history of science in the context of world and global history, investigating global patterns and implications in a multilingual and increasingly interconnected world. Chapters reveal cosmopolitan networks of shared practice and knowledge about the natural world from 1000 to 1800 CE, emphasizing both evolving scientific exchange and the emergence of innovative science. By unraveling the role of translation in cross-cultural communication, Knowledge in Translation highlights key moments of transmission, insight, and critical interpretation across linguistic and faith communities.

A Source Book for Mediæval History

A Source Book for Mediæval History
Author: Oliver Joseph Thatcher, Edgar Holmes McNeal
Publisher:
ISBN:
Pages: 619
Year: 1905
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Book in Honor of Augustus

Book in Honor of Augustus
Author: Petrus, Gwenyth Hood
Publisher: Acmrs (Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies)
ISBN: 0866984461
Pages: 560
Year: 2012
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Book in Honor of Augustus is a translation of Pietro da Eboli's Liber ad Honorem Augusti, published with the original Latin text, with black and white reproductions of the miniatures from the manuscript, with a historical introduction, a commentary, and biographical sketches of all the personalities mentioned in the poem. Liber, completed around 1196-1197, follows the struggles of Henry VI of Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, to establish himself as king of Sicily after marrying its heiress, Constance of Hauteville. De Balneis Puteolanis is another work by the same author, who is sometimes called Petrus de Ebulo or Peter of Eboli.

The Shock of Medievalism

The Shock of Medievalism
Author: Kathleen Biddick
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822321998
Pages: 315
Year: 1998
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An attempt to disrupt, critique and question the practices and assumptions of medieval studies in light of recent theoretical debates in postmodern, queer, feminist, and post-colonial theory.

Exchanges in Exoticism

Exchanges in Exoticism
Author: Megan Moore
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442661372
Pages: 200
Year: 2014-02-05
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Charting important new territory within medieval gender studies, Megan Moore explores the vital role that women played in transmitting knowledge and empire within Mediterranean cross-cultural marriages. Whereas cross-cultural exchange has typically been understood through the lens of male-centered translation work, this study, which is grounded in the relations between the west and Byzantium, examines cross-cultural marriage as a medium of literary and cultural exchange, one in which women's work was equally important as men’s. Moore's readings of Old French and Medieval Greek texts reveal the extent to which women challenged the cultures into which they married and shaped their new courtly environments. Through the lens of medieval gender and postcolonial theory, Exchanges in Exoticism demonstrates how the process of cultural exchange – and empire building – extends well beyond our traditional assumptions about gender roles in the medieval Mediterranean.

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