Author: Francois Voltaire
Includes Part One of Candide; three stories; selections from The Philosophical Dictionary, The Lisbon Earthquake, and other works; and thirty-five letters.
Author: Roger Pearson
Publisher: A&C Black
During much of his life Voltaire's plays and verse made him the toast of society, but his barbed wit and commitment to reason also got him into trouble. Jailed twice and eventually banished by the King, he was an outspoken critic of religious intolerance and persecution. His personal life was as colourful as his intellectual one. Voltaire never married, but had long-term affairs with two women: Emilie, who died after giving birth to the child of another lover, and his niece, Marie-Louise, with whom he spent his last twenty-five years. With its tales of illegitimacy, prison, stardom, exile, love affairs and tireless battles against critics, Church and King, Roger Pearson's brilliant biography brings Voltaire vividly to life.
The Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, also called the Age of Reason, was so named for an intellectual movement that shook the foundations of Western civilization. In championing radical ideas such as individual liberty and an empirical appraisal of the universe through rational inquiry and natural experience, Enlightenment philosophers in Europe and America planted the seeds for modern liberalism, cultural humanism, science and technology, and laissez-faire Capitalism This volume brings together works from this era, with more than 100 selections from a range of sources. It includes examples by Kant, Diderot, Voltaire, Newton, Rousseau, Locke, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, and Paine that demonstrate the pervasive impact of Enlightenment views on philosophy and epistemology as well as on political, social, and economic institutions.
Author: Voltaire, David Williams
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This edition of Voltaire's political writings presents a varied selection of his most interesting and controversial texts, many of which have not previously been translated into English. Their themes include the nature and legitimacy of political power, law and the social order, and the growing disorder in the French economy, and in addition they touch on specific issues such as the Seven Years' War and relations with Frederick II, and the sensational trials of Jean Calas, Sirver and the Chevalier De La Barre.
Publisher: Courier Corporation
DIVVoltaire's brilliant satire on the follies of man, in the original French, with a new and exacting English translation on the opposing page. Weller's critical introduction illuminates the satire's enduring appeal. /div
Author: Alexander J. Nemeth
Publisher: Associated University Presse
"The historic giant of the Enlightenment, Voltaire, has attracted the attention of literary critics, historians, and philosophers for over two centuries. The products of his brilliant mind, collected in over seventy volumes, have been scrutinized in a plethora of literary essays, while his extraordinarily eventful life has become the subject of a score of biographies. But the roots of perplexing inconsistencies - both in behavioral conduct and in some of his writings - run deeper than the ground generally plowed by literary critics or historians. Constructs for understanding the layered mechanisms of personality (and the methods appropriate for their investigation as developed in the social/behavioral sciences) became necessary. Fortunately, ample material for such an inquiry is available: the poet's vast, emotion-laden correspondence; observations of behavioral peculiarities by friends and chroniclers of the time (cross-verifiable, due to multiple sources); the highly expressive imagery of his poetry and prose - the contes in particular; and his Memoirs." "The findings, in essence, reveal a person of dual identity, with unconscious forces playing a prominent role and holding the key to Voltaire's paradoxical character. His conscious, rational, and cognitively astute self - the standard-bearer of the philosophes in their epochal struggle for freedom - was also responsible for sealing off the subconscious portion of the self associated with traumatic experiences. The elaborate characterological structure erected to ward off consciously unacceptable impulses and, simultaneously, to obtain satisfaction of frustrated needs, is the subject of this study. The price he had to pay for the drastic disconnect between the two selves was formidable. In this volume, much attention is devoted to the unconventional ways and phantasmal stratagems adopted for dealing with the internal pressure of repressed impulses and a perpetual quest for affectional support. Some of these maneuvers show tenuous contact with social reality, as do his bizarre psychosomatic symptoms and bold rationalizations in the Memoirs." "Fortunately for the Western world, Voltaire's prodigious mind was put to use in rattling the cage of the intolerant and rigidly backward theocratic/political system. Due to his immense popularity as a playwright, and his agile participation in current events through a flood of pamphlets, leaflets, and occasional pieces, together with the gigantic volume and engaging style of his correspondence, the name Voltaire became synonymous with the Age of Enlightenment. The dual identity did not interfere with his effectiveness as a humanist. In fact, there is reason to believe that the energy invested in fighting l'infame, the oppressive authority of Church and State, was augmented by a dynamic driving force of the hidden self: the never verbalized and consciously never processed bitter resentment of paternal coercion. Principles and methods of depth psychology, as applied in the study, are elucidated and illustrated."--BOOK JACKET.
Author: Denise Bonhomme
The main focus of this daring study is the veiled message concealed in the trilogy consisting of Zadig, Candide and L’Ingénu. Micromégas, Le Mondain and the Poem on the Disaster of Lisbon are also examined esoterically. The Voltairian “contraband” which is the core of those writings was too explosive for overt publication during the lifetime of the author. More dangerous to reveal than his well-known, subversive socio-political views was the spiritual source of his militancy. Accordingly, his veiled message was meant for the general reading public of the future. But it never went unnoticed by other literary “smugglers.” Hints and clues to the presence of hidden material are many. Zadig, for instance, is described by its author as “a story that says more than it seems to say,” a massive understatement. Voltaire is “only” one star in a spectacular constellation of similarly inspired writers. Among such luminaries are Rabelais, Vigny, Ibsen, Proust, Sinclair Lewis and Saint-Exupéry. In the words of Marcel Proust, “the great writers have never done but one work…” Leads are given to encourage the esoteric exploration of the vast domain of esoteric literature. An esoteric Glossary is included in this book.
Author: Francois Marie Arouet
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
The original CliffsNotes study guides offer expert commentary on major themes, plots, characters, literary devices, and historical background. CliffsNotes on Candide explores the best known philosophic tale from Voltaire. The tale is a vehicle for his profoundest views on politics, religion, and philosophy. At the same time, it is an adventure tale about a young hero who travels far and wide and experiences great dangers. With this study guide, you’ll see why Voltaire is considered among the greatest satirists in literature. Along with detailed explanations of the plot, your understanding will increase with insight into the life and times of the author. Other features that help you study include Background on Voltaire’s contemporaries and influences Character analyses of major players A character map that graphically illustrates the relationships among the characters Critical essays Review questions Classic literature or modern modern-day treasure — you'll understand it all with expert information and insight from CliffsNotes study guides.
Author: Voltaire, Simon Harvey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Voltaire is widely known as the author of a literary masterpiece, Candide, while his reputation as a thinker rests largely on his Philosophical Letters and Philosophical Dictionary. He is equally renowned as a critic of the forces of superstition and fanaticism, and a champion of freedom of thought and belief. The works presented here, in a new English translation, are among the most important and characteristic texts of the Enlightenment, and bring together all three aspects of Voltaire: the writer, the doer and the philosophe. Originating in Voltaire's campaign to exonerate Jean Calas, they are works of polemical brilliance, informed by his deism and humanism and by Enlightenment values and ideals more generally. The issues which they raise, concerning questions of tolerance and human dignity, are still highly relevant to our own times. This volume presents them together with an introduction by Simon Harvey and useful notes on further reading.
Author: Voltaire, Mike Shreve, Michael Shreve, S. T. Joshi
In this little-known work by Voltaire (1694-1778)--now available in English for the first time-- the famous French "philosophe "and satirist presents a wide-ranging and acerbic survey of religion throughout the world. Written toward the end of his life in 1769, the work was penned in the same decade as some of his more famous works--the" Philosophical Dictionary," "Questions on Miracles," and "Lord Bolingbroke's Important Examination"--all of which questioned the basic tenets of Christianity. Voltaire called himself a deist and thus he professed belief in a supreme deity. But he was always sharply critical of institutional Christianity, especially its superstitions, the hypocrisy of its clergy, and its abuse of political power. Both his deism and his critical attitude toward Christianity are manifest in "God and Human Beings," which is, in effect, one of the first works of comparative religion. Comparing Christianity to the more ancient belief systems of the Jews, Hindus, Chinese, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Babylonians, Phoenicians, and Arabs, he notes a common tendency to worship one supreme god, despite the host of subordinate deities in many of these religions. He also critiques the many superstitions and slavish rituals in religion generally, but he emphasizes that in this respect Christianity is no better than other faiths. Thus, the clergy's claim that Christianity is God's supreme revelation to humanity has no basis from an objective perspective. This first English translation of a classic critique of religion includes an introduction by writer, scholar, and editor S. T. Joshi, who wrote the article on Voltaire in "The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief" (edited by Tom Flynn). Anticipating many of the themes of the later Higher Criticism and rationalist critiques of religion, this incisive, witty treatise by the great French skeptic will be a welcome addition to the libraries of anyone with an interest in the philosophy of religion, intellectual history, or the Enlightenment.
Author: Rev. Douglas Kenneth Peary
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Each of the 17 chapters of this book is an introduction to the life and beliefs of a great scientist, philosopher, poet or thinker who rejects faith in theistic concepts of religion developed by primitive people. They run from Voltaire, Thomas Paine and Robert Ingersoll, to Walt Whitman, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan. These thinkers expound on their views of the natural world and on what we can hope and believe based on the scientific method and discoveries. They fill us with overwhelming sense of wonder and awe by what they teach about how to view our wonderful world. They teach us to thrill to evolving life and to be at peace with ourselves despite the limits of our lives. Past President of the Humanist Association of Central Connecticut, Dr. David Schafer, said, "For several years, among the talks most consistently popular with our members have been those in Doug Peary?s long running series, ?Humanist Heroes.? One reason seems to be the emotional intensity Doug brings to his research on each of his subjects, an intensity that continues to reward him, and us, deeply with each of his subjects with each new biography he touches. These are not just interesting stories from and about the lives of Humanists--they are intimate glimpses of more meaningful insights into living, working, loving, and dying, profoundly inspirational for Doug and his audiences."